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Most of the city lies on the right bank of the Rhine unlike Cologne, which is on the river's left bank. Düsseldorf lies in the centre of both the Rhine-Ruhr and the Rhineland Metropolitan Region.
It neighbours the Cologne Bonn Region to the south and the Ruhr to the north. It is the largest city in the German Low Franconian dialect area closely related to Dutch.
Mercer's Quality of Living survey ranked Düsseldorf the sixth most livable city in the world. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs,    and is headquarters to one Fortune Global and two DAX companies.
Messe Düsseldorf organises nearly one fifth of premier trade shows. There are 22 institutions of higher education in the city including the Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf , the university of applied sciences Hochschule Düsseldorf , the academy of arts Kunstakademie Düsseldorf , whose members include Joseph Beuys , Emanuel Leutze , August Macke , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Andreas Gursky , and the university of music Robert-Schumann-Musikhochschule Düsseldorf.
When the Roman Empire was strengthening its position throughout Europe, a few Germanic tribes clung on in marshy territory off the eastern banks of the Rhine.
It was from such settlements that the city of Düsseldorf grew. The first written mention of Düsseldorf then called Dusseldorp in the local Low Rhenish dialect dates back to Under Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa the small town of Kaiserswerth to the north of Düsseldorf became a well-fortified outpost, where soldiers kept a watchful eye on every movement on the Rhine.
Kaiserswerth eventually became a suburb of Düsseldorf in In , Düsseldorf came under the rule of the Counts of Berg.
On this day the sovereign Count Adolf VIII of Berg granted the village on the banks of the Düssel town privileges.
Before this, a bloody struggle for power had taken place between the Archbishop of Cologne and the count of Berg , culminating in the Battle of Worringen.
The Archbishop of Cologne's forces were wiped out by the forces of the count of Berg who were supported by citizens and farmers of Cologne and Düsseldorf, paving the way for Düsseldorf's elevation to city status, which is commemorated today by a monument on the Burgplatz.
The custom of turning cartwheels is credited to the children of Düsseldorf. There are variations of the origin  of the cartwheeling children.
Today the symbol Der Radschläger  represents the story and every year the Düsseldorfers celebrate by having a cartwheeling contest.
After this battle the relationship between the four cities deteriorated, because they were commercial rivals; it is often said that there is a kind of hostility between the citizens of Cologne and Düsseldorf.
Today, it finds its expression mainly in a humorous form especially during the Rhineland Karneval and in sports. A market square sprang up on the banks of the Rhine and the square was protected by city walls on all four sides.
In , the dukes of Berg moved their seat to the town and Düsseldorf was made regional capital of the Duchy of Berg.
During the following centuries several famous landmarks were built, including the Collegiate Church of St Lambertus. In , the ducal line of the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg died out, and after a virulent struggle over succession, Jülich and Berg fell to the Wittelsbach Counts of Palatinate-Neuburg , who made Düsseldorf their main domicile, even after they inherited the Electorate of the Palatinate , in , becoming now Prince-electors as Electors Palatine.
Under the art-loving Johann Wilhelm II r. After his death, the city fell on hard times again, especially after Elector Charles Theodore inherited Bavaria and moved the electoral court to Munich.
With him he took the art collection , which became part of what is now the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. Destruction and poverty struck Düsseldorf after the Napoleonic Wars.
Napoleon made Berg a Grand Duchy and Düsseldorf its capital. Johann Devaranne , a leader of Solingen 's resistance to Napoleon's conscription decrees, was executed here in After Napoleon's defeat, the whole Rhineland including Berg was given to the Kingdom of Prussia in The Rhine Province 's parliament was established in Düsseldorf.
During World War I the Royal Naval Air Service RNS undertook the first Entente strategic bombing missions on 22 September , when it bombed the Zeppelin bases in Düsseldorf.
In , Düsseldorf became the centre of the General Strike. On 15 April , 45 delegates of the German Miners Union were murdered by the Freikorps. The city was a target of strategic bombing during World War II , particularly during the RAF bombing campaign in when over bombers were used in a single night.
Raids continued late into the war. As part of the campaign against German oil facilities , the RAF raid of 20—21 February on the Rhenania Ossag refinery in the Reisholz district of the city halted oil production there.
The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Düsseldorf in mid-April The United States 97th Infantry Division easily captured the city on 18 April ,  after the local German Resistance group launched Aktion Rheinland.
In , Düsseldorf was made capital of the new federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The city's reconstruction proceeded at a frantic pace and the economic transformation guided Düsseldorf's economic growth.
Düsseldorf lies at the centre of the Lower Rhine basin, where the delta of the Düssel flows into the Rhine. The city lies on the east side of the Rhine, except District 4 Oberkassel , Niederkassel , Heerdt and Lörick.
Across the Rhine, the city of Neuss stands on the delta of the Erft. Düsseldorf lies southwest of the Ruhr urban area, and in the middle of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.
Düsseldorf is built entirely on alluvium , mud, sand, clay and occasionally gravel. The following districts and cities border Düsseldorf clockwise starting from the north : the City of Duisburg , the District of Mettmann Ratingen , Mettmann , Erkrath , Hilden , Langenfeld , and Monheim , and the District of Neuss Dormagen , Neuss, and Meerbusch.
The city has an oceanic climate Köppen : Cfb , mild in relation to East Germany. The average annual temperature is With a population of , within the city boundaries 31 December ,  Düsseldorf is Germany's seventh largest city.
Its population surpassed the threshold of , inhabitants during the height of industrialisation in , and peaked at just over , in The city then began to lose residents with many moving into neighbouring municipalities.
However, since the late s, the city's population has been slowly rising again. The largest national minorities are Turks , Greeks , and Poles.
Düsseldorf and its surroundings have the third-largest Japanese community in Europe and the largest in Germany about 11, people.
Since , Düsseldorf is divided into ten administrative districts. Each district Bezirk has its own elected district council Bezirksvertretung and its own district mayor Bezirksvorsteher.
The district councils are advisory only. Each district is further subdivided into boroughs. There are 50 boroughs in Düsseldorf.
Düsseldorf has become one of the top telecommunications centres in Germany. With two of the four big German providers of mobile frequencies, D2 Vodafone and E-Plus , Düsseldorf leads the German mobile phone market.
There are many foreign information and communication technology companies in Düsseldorf such as Huawei , NTT , Ericsson , Oppo , Vivo and Xiaomi.
There are two airlines with headquarters in the city: Eurowings and formerly independent LTU International. Many of the internet companies in Düsseldorf have their roots in the world of advertising: there are advertising agencies in Düsseldorf, among them three of the largest in Germany: BBDO Group , Grey Global Group and Publicis.
There are also about publishing houses in Düsseldorf. Daimler AG builds the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter light commercial vehicles in Düsseldorf.
Since the s, there has been a strong relationship between the city and Japan. Many Japanese banks and corporations have their European headquarters in Düsseldorf — so many that Düsseldorf has the third largest Japanese community in Europe, after London and Paris.
The "Kö", which stands for Königsallee "King's Avenue" , is a shopping destination. Some jewellery shops, designer labels, and galleries have their stores here.
The Kö has among the highest rents for retail and office space in Germany. The city is also an important financial center.
HSBC has its German headquarter in Düsseldorf and employs 3. BANK is a development bank of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia and the largest state development bank in Germany.
BANK was spun off from WestLB in Today Deutsche Bank and Commerzbank have major branches in Düsseldorf with about 2. Düsseldorf is also the most important German financial center for Japanese credit institutions.
MUFG Bank , SMBC and Mizuho have their German headquarter in Düsseldorf. Also Santander has its German headquarter in the Düsseldorf region.
Some major insurance companies like ERGO , a subsidiary of Munich Re and ARAG are located in the city. Several other major financial service companies have their headquarters in the city.
Important newspapers and journals such as Handelsblatt , Rheinische Post , Wirtschaftswoche , Deutsches Wirtschaftsblatt and VDI-Nachrichten are published in Düsseldorf.
Almost all of these papers are available online on the Internet. Renowned filmmaking companies, such as Germany's biggest cinema enterprise, the Riech-Group, and TV channels such as WDR and QVC are located in Düsseldorf.
The foundation Film- und Medienstiftung NRW is supporting the production of film and new media. In regards to movies and movie theatres in Düsseldorf, moviegoers have the option to choose between multiple different languages at the theatre.
Many mainstream movies are shown in English, Spanish, French, and German. Düsseldorf Airport , also referred to as Rhein-Ruhr Airport, is located eight kilometres 5 miles north of the city centre and can easily be reached by train or the S-Bahn urban railway.
There is a long-distance train station served by regional and national services, which is linked to the airport by the SkyTrain , an automatic people mover.
Another station situated under the terminal building carries the S-Bahn line S11 to Düsseldorf Central Station , and to Cologne as well as a few selected night services.
After Frankfurt and Munich, Düsseldorf International is Germany's third largest commercial airport , with 21,, passengers annually The airport offers destinations on 4 continents, and is served by 70 airlines.
The airport buildings were partly destroyed by a devastating fire caused by welding works in , killing 17 people.
It was completely rebuilt and the Skytrain installed. The city is a major hub in the Deutsche Bahn DB railway network. More than 1, trains stop in Düsseldorf daily.
Düsseldorf Central Station at Konrad-Adenauer-Platz is located in Düsseldorf-Stadtmitte. Several Rhein-Ruhr S-Bahn lines connect Düsseldorf to other cities of Rhine-Ruhr.
The light rail system also serves neighbouring cities and is partially operated underground. In Düsseldorf there are officially licensed Taxis.
According to the regulations, the cars are always in ivory colour. On the back window you always find a black number on a yellow patch. Credit card payment has to be accepted at the Taxi stands at Airport of Düsseldorf.
The supply of taxis in Düsseldorf is over the German average [ citation needed ]. Two taxi organisations cover the market [ citation needed ].
The smaller one is "Rhein-Taxi" with more than cabs. It is obligatory to carry out any journeys to destinations in the city and directly neighbouring cities.
In addition to stationary car sharing, where vehicles must be returned to their original location after use, socalled One-way carsharing vehicles have also been available for hire since These vehicles, which can be parked anywhere where parking is normally allowed within Düsseldorf, can be rented from Car2go, Greenwheels, Stadtmobil and DriveNow.
North Rhine-Westphalia has the densest network of autobahns in Germany and Düsseldorf is directly accessible via the A3 , A44 , A46 , A52 , A57 , A59 and A Düsseldorf is connected to some national and international cycling paths, including EV15 The Rhine Cycle Route.
The city of Düsseldorf is a member of the German North Rhine-Westphalia District, Municipality and City Friends of Pedestrians and Cyclists Working Group, who bestowed upon Düsseldorf the title of "Friend of Cyclists City" in , although the city still has a few gaps in the network of cycle paths in the eyes of many of its citizens.
Elector Jan Wellem and his wife Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici of Tuscany, were patrons of Düsseldorf's first significant cultural activities in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Heinrich Heine , whose th birthday was celebrated in and who originally had a proposed memorial in the city dedicated to him; Clara and Robert Schumann ; and as Felix Mendelssohn , are the most prominent artists related to the city, which is home to a distinguished Academy of Fine Arts.
The Düsseldorf cultural scene comprises traditional and avant-garde , classical and glamorous. The world-famous state art collection of North Rhine-Westphalia, the highly acclaimed Deutsche Oper am Rhein opera , and the Düsseldorfer Schauspielhaus theatre , artistic home of Gustaf Gründgens , are major elements of Düsseldorf's reputation as a centre of the fine arts.
Düsseldorf is well known for its Altbier ,  a hoppy beer which translates as old [style] beer , a reference to the pre- lager brewing method of using a warm top-fermenting yeast like British pale ales.
The name "altbier" first appeared in the 19th century to differentiate the beers of Düsseldorf from the new pale lager that was gaining a hold on Germany.
Brewers in Düsseldorf used the pale malts that were used for the modern pale lagers, but retained the old "alt" method of using warm fermenting yeasts.
The first brewery to use the name Alt was Schumacher which opened in There are five pub-breweries in Düsseldorf which brew Altbier on the premises: Füchschen, Schumacher, Schlüssel, Uerige and Brauerei Kürzer.
Four of the five are in the historic centre of Düsseldorf Altstadt ; the other Schumacher , between the Altstadt and Düsseldorf Central railway station Hauptbahnhof , also maintains an establishment in the Altstadt, Im Goldenen Kessel, across the street from Schlüssel.
Each except Brauerei Kürzer produces a special, secret, seasonal "Sticke" version in small quantities, though the names vary: Schlüssel spells it "Stike", without the "c", while Schumacher calls its special beer "Latzenbier", meaning "slat beer", possibly because the kegs from which it was poured had been stored on raised shelves.
Since the s the " Kom m ödchen " has been one of the most prominent political cabarets of Germany. The city's most famous contribution to the culture of modern popular music is beyond doubt the influential avant-garde electronic band Kraftwerk.
Formed by a few Düsseldorf-born musicians, Kraftwerk is internationally known as the most significant band in the history of post-war German music and as pioneers in electronic music.
Both groups had a significant influence on a variety of subsequent rock , post-punk , and electronic music artists. Internationally known power metal band Warlock was formed in Düsseldorf in Its frontwoman, Doro Pesch , had a successful solo career in Europe and Asia since Warlock ended.
The punk band Die Toten Hosen , which is famous around the world, also the most popular singers [ citation needed ] in Germany Westernhagen and Heino come from Düsseldorf.
The electronic act D. Another famous formation is Fehlfarben. Founded in the late s by Peter Hein, Frank Fenstermacher, Kurt Dahlke and Michael Kemner.
Düsseldorf appears in several songs, including Düsseldorf by the British indie band Teleman and Wärst du doch in Düsseldorf geblieben by Danish singer Dorthe Kollo.
Düsseldorf became the fashion capital of Germany it was and is also a major cultural center for the art and fashion scenes for decades.
Berlin, Germany's 'fashion capital' until , lost its position because of its special location inmidst the Soviet occupation zone.
After the Monetary reform of June 20 , fashionable clothes trends gained importance. The Igedo organised fashion shows starting March  staged in Düsseldorf.
Karneval ends on Aschermittwoch Ash Wednesday. The Düsseldorfer Radschläger Boy who does Cartwheels is said to be the city's oldest tradition.
The symbol of the cartwheeler can be found on souvenirs and various things in Düsseldorf have the cartwheelers to thank for their names.
The tradition cannot be linked to one specific historical event, instead, there are several stories surrounding the beginnings of the Düsseldorf Cartwheelers.
Probably the most well known version is Battle of Worringen. In the battle of Count Adolf devastatingly defeated the Archbishop of Cologne.
As a consequence of this victory, Düsseldorf obtained Town privileges. Another story talks about a wedding procession during which one of the wheels of the wedding carriage broke.
In order to fend off the threat of bad luck, a boy supposedly jumped to the carriage, took hold of the wheel and thus became a living part of the wheel.
Whether the story is about the marriage of Jan Wellem and Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici or the wedding of Margravine Jakobea of Baden and Johann Wilhelm is debatable.
Another story gives an account of this wedding between Margrave Jacobe von Baden and Johann Wilhelm, in According to legend she felt miserable about her marriage, but the cartwheelers who displayed their skills next to her carriage were able to make her smile.
Numerous travelers were attracted to the city by great exhibitions — the forerunner of today's fairs — between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century.
During this time the children who did the cart wheeling found out that it was a profitable source of income. The bourgeoisie accepted this in good humour as a symbolic act of local patriotism.
The Jan Wellem monument returned to Düsseldorf at the end of the Second World War. The procession was accompanied by torches, fanfares and the cartwheeling boys.
Cartwheelers can be found by several fountains within the city and near many small landmarks. The fountain was designed by Alfred Zschorsch in and donated by the Heimatverein Düsseldorfer Jonges , which is a club devoted to the maintenance of local and regional traditions.
There are other cartwheelers that decorate storm drains and the door knocker on the Church of Lambertus, designed by Friedrich Becker.
He created the cartwheeler in front of the Schadow Arcades. This tradition has been kept alive by the Alde Düsseldorfer Bürgergesellschaft von e.
Since this event has been held annually  in cooperation with the Stadtsparkasse a local bank , but formerly took place in the Königsallee.
Since it has taken place on the Rheinwerft , near the old part of town. About boys regularly participate in this event and since girls have also taken part.
In the art project Radschläger-Kunst Cartwheeler Art was called into life, in which over cartwheeler sculptures have been designed by various artists.
They were positioned around the city centre. Some of the sculptures have been auctioned off to companies and private owners. Every Christmas , the city of Düsseldorf uses the city centre to host one of the largest Christmas gatherings in Germany.
The Christmas festival occurs every year from 17 November until 23 December. This Christmas fest brings Düsseldorf a large portion of tourism every year as many people from nearby areas come to the city to drink mulled wine and hot chocolate and watch craftsman blow glass and create art.
The event contains many small wooden buildings all clustered in the middle of the city for all the citizens to enjoy.
The event, to many visitors, has an old European feel, but is very lively. Traditional meals in the region are Rheinischer Sauerbraten a beef roast and sometimes horse marinated for a few days in vinegar and spices served with gravy and raisins and Heaven and Earth Himmel und Äd; black pudding with stewed apples mixed with mashed potatoes.
In winter the people like to eat Muscheln Rheinischer Art Rhenish-style mussels as well as Reibekuchen fried potato pancake served with apple sauce.
Also a special meal: Düsseldorfer Senfrostbraten Steaks roasted with Düsseldorf mustard on top. Düsseldorf is known for its strong Dijon -like mustard served in a traditional pot called "Mostertpöttche", which was eternalised in a still life by Vincent van Gogh in The Rhine Metropolis is one of the most diverse areas in terms of culinary diversity.
Düsseldorf, with the third largest Japanese community in Europe, not only provides a wide range of culinary cuisine but also has a solid foundation of Authentic Asian food in the city.
Düsseldorf's exceptional culinary cuisine has been recognized and visited by the Worldwide leading travel guide of Lonely Planet.
Along with a broad range of diverse cultural cuisine, Düsseldorf is also home to various Michelin starred restaurants that are world renowned.
Halve Hahn — this dish is made from a half a double rye roll, which is another of the specialties of Düsseldorf, buttered, with a thick slice of aged Gouda cheese, onions, mustard, ground paprika and sour pickles.
Himmel un Aad — a dish of mashed potatoes and apples along with slices of blutwurst. Caramelized onions are usually served with this meal.
Reibekuchen is another famous dish from Düsseldorf; this dish is usually drizzled with Rübensyrup beet syrup and is served on pumpernickel slices along with applesauce .
The Förderpreis für Literatur der Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf is a German Literary award donated by the City of Düsseldorf in Northrhine-Westphalia.
The Förderpreis für Literatur der Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf is given once a year to artists and groups, especially to the areas of poetry, writing, review and translation.
Düsseldorf and Cologne have had a "fierce regional rivalry". The ISS-Dome , an ice hockey stadium, opened in The Merkur Spiel-Arena formerly LTU Arena.
Düsseldorf's main football team Fortuna Düsseldorf won the German championship, the German Cup in and , and were finalists in the European Cup Winners Cup in They currently play in the Bundesliga , after being promoted from the 2.
Victoria Versicherung. ON energetyka , Henkel chemia i Metro AG handel. Operatorem transportu lokalnego jest Rheinbahn. Z Wikipedii, wolnej encyklopedii.
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Portal Niemcy. Altstadt Angermund Benrath Bilk Carlstadt Derendorf Düsseltal Eller Flehe Flingern-Nord Flingern-Süd Friedrichstadt Garath Gerresheim Golzheim Grafenberg Hafen.
Hamm Hassels Heerdt Hellerhof Himmelgeist Holthausen Hubbelrath Itter Kaiserswerth Kalkum Knittkuhl Lichtenbroich Lierenfeld Lohausen Lörick Ludenberg Mörsenbroich.
Niederkassel Oberbilk Oberkassel Pempelfort Rath Reisholz Stadtmitte Stockum Unterbach Unterbilk Unterrath Urdenbach Vennhausen Volmerswerth Wersten Wittlaer.
Altstadt Angermund Benrath Bilk Carlstadt Derendorf Düsseltal Eller Flehe Flingern-Nord Flingern-Süd Friedrichstadt Garath Gerresheim Golzheim Grafenberg Hafen Hamm Hassels Heerdt Hellerhof Himmelgeist Holthausen Hubbelrath Itter Kaiserswerth Kalkum Knittkuhl Lichtenbroich Lierenfeld Lohausen Lörick Ludenberg Mörsenbroich Niederkassel Oberbilk Oberkassel Pempelfort Rath Reisholz Stadtmitte Stockum Unterbach Unterbilk Unterrath Urdenbach Vennhausen Volmerswerth Wersten Wittlaer.